The Hartford Chorale has been in rehearsal for its October 24 and 25 performances of Beethoven’s Symphony No. 9 (the Choral) with The Hartford Symphony Orchestra. (Freude!) The choral finale (“Ode to Joy”) is perhaps the most taxing choral music I’ve ever sung. In a recent essay, I explored some of the questions and issues I consider in preparing choral music from varying periods, traditions, and styles. Here’s what I have been thinking about as I prepare for rehearsals and performances of Beethoven’s remarkable Choral Symphony. (And yes, one must prepare for rehearsals, as well as for performances: vocally, musically, and intellectually.)
It’s interesting to compare the vocal challenges of singing Beethoven’s Missa Solemnis with those of his Choral Symphony. Though the vocal portion of the Choral Symphony comprises only 15 or 20 minutes of singing, compared to the 80 or so minutes of choral singing in the Missa Solemnis, I find the Symphony much more difficult from a vocal perspective. Why? Mostly because of its tessitura; that is, the vocal range in which most of the singing is concentrated. While the soprano part for the Missa Solemnis requires a greater range from top to bottom, and includes a great many tension-blasting melismatic passages where one can race around (vocally!), the soprano part for the Choral Symphony requires long stretches of pretty-similar singing, much of it sustained at the very top of the range, around high A.
The sopranos of the chorus must sing about 75 high A s (yes, someone has counted them), and many of these are sustained forte or fortissimo over many measures. Try singing a note near the very top of your range, very loud, and holding it for about half a minute. No vibrato! Perfect intonation! It has to be beautiful! Don’t let the pitch sag! Clear as a bell! Blend with the rest of the section! Enunciate the German! Decrescendo, sustain the pitch, don’t breathe! then crescendo to fortissimo! Don’t faint! Ach du lieber! Now, try doing that about 20 times, and in between, sing low, medium, high, soft, low. And every time you get back to those $#*&@ high As, they have to be as fresh and pure as the first time around.
High A is definitely not my favorite pitch to sing. I have a minor passagio (break) around that point, which means that I shift from the middle part of my range to a higher, lighter part. High B-flats are always better! (I would have been very happy if the whole Symphony were in E-flat major instead of D major, which Beethoven probably chose to take advantage of the brilliancy of the trumpets and timpani.)
So, how does one sing the Choral Symphony without blowing a gasket, developing an aversion to ledger lines, or hating Beethoven altogether? It takes some preparation and consideration of historical, musical, and vocal contexts.
Scoring and Vocal Assignments. Beethoven calls for larger vocal and instrumental forces than had generally been used previously, and he often calls upon the musicians to play and sing very loudly for very long periods. Sometimes the instruments double the vocal parts; sometimes they are playing contrasting parts. In either case, the voices need to be heard over, through, and beyond a very large orchestra. Singing without vibrato and with a clear, focused tone will help the voices to blend and carry. The Hartford Chorale’s Music Director Richard Coffey has made some judicious vocal doublings to bring important passages to the ear and to minimize vocal stress. For example, in several places, the second sopranos sing with the altos, or the second altos sing with the first tenors. None of these assignments affect the first soprano part (to which I am assigned), but it’s important for me to understand what parts my neighbors will be singing and how the voices are supposed to balance. At one of the most treacherous vocal passages (measures 650-654) — über'm Sternenzelt Muß ein lieber Vater wohnen — “surely a loving Father Dwells above the canopy of stars” — the sopranos are divided, with only the first sopranos taking the ethereal upper passage , and the second sopranos joining the first altos. Oh, it’s so lovely. Oh, it’s so difficult to make it lovely. Lightness, clarity, purity of tone.
Ensemble Size and Distribution. It’s easy to get carried away with the energy, emotion, and sheer physical exuberance of this music, but one does so at the risk of vocal injury. The Hartford Chorale has 170 singers; at least 72 of these are sopranos, and 37 are first sopranos like me. With that many voices, none of us needs to scream. Only at a few places do we really need to sing very, very loudly. It’s too easy to get too loud, at which point the voice becomes…ugly.
Program Considerations. The Choral Symphony is the only work on this program that the Chorale will be performing, so our voices should be fresh, and Maestro Coffey will warm us up carefully. But we have performances back to back on Friday and Saturday, so we’ll need to pace ourselves so as to be fresh for the second performance, as well.
So, What is the “Right Voice?” For me, lightness and clarity is key to not getting tired. The more vibrato I allow in this sort of singing (especially in loud passages), the heavier and less pleasant the voice becomes, and the more quickly I tire. Each singer must learn to sing lightly and 'healthily" throughout the work, saving the "big sound" only for the several moments when it is truly required. With 160 voices, none of us needs to shout too much. And of course, heavy or forced singing is ugly, and as Mr. Coffey tells us, "Never make an ugly sound." Such a simple concept, and so apt.
To read all my essays on my experiences as a chorister, including more on technique, click here: http://quodlibet-sarah.blogspot.com/search/label/Chorister