Saturday, October 29, 2011

The Snow it Snoweth


The wind it bloweth
The snow it snoweth
The day goeth sloweth
Here at home.

So here I goeth
With words I knoweth
That rhyme with “snoweth”
In a poem.

[As K says, it's like something Pooh would write.] [xo]

© 2011 Quodlibet. Dissemination, re-use, or duplication prohibited except by express permission of the author.I pay attention and I will find you if you cite, republish, or use my work without credit or without attribution.

Friday, October 28, 2011

First Snow


"Solaced and Refreshed"

No time to write something original today, so here are some good quotes about music to soothe your savage breast.


The exercise of singing is delightful to nature, and good to preserve the health of man. It doth strengthen all parts of the breast, and doth open the pipes. (William Byrd, 1543–1623)

Music is a discipline, and a mistress of order and good manners, she makes the people milder and gentler, more moral and more reasonable. (Martin Luther, 1483-1546)

He who sings scares away his woes. (Miguel de Cervantes, 1547-1616)

Music is the only art capable of affording peace and joy of the heart. (Martin Luther, 1483-1546)

Among other things proper to recreate man and give him pleasure, music is either the first or one of the principal... (Jean Calvin, 1509-1564)

…Whether you wish to comfort the sad, to terrify the happy, to encourage the despairing, to humble the proud, to calm the passionate, or to appease those full of hate…what more effective means than music could you find? (Martin Luther, 1483-1546)

All their music, both that they play upon instruments, and that they sing with [the] voice, doth so resemble and express natural affections; the sound and tune is so applied and made agreeable to the thing; that whether it be a prayer, or else a ditty of gladness, of patience, of trouble, of mourning, or of anger, the fashion of the melody doth so represent the meaning of the thing, that it doth wonderfully move, stir, pierce and enflame the hearer’s mind. (Sir Thomas More, 1478-1535)

My heart, which is so full to overflowing, has often been solaced and refreshed by music when sick and weary. (Martin Luther, 1483-1546)

Saturday, October 22, 2011

Last Looks

A few weeks ago I wrote about an important piece of habitat in my town that is going to be developed, and about the many important birds that would be affected by this loss.

I visited the area for just a few minutes today to take a few photos to remember it by. I don’t think I’ll be going there much any more. It’s just too sad, and with so many other burdens in my life right now, I just can’t bear it.

There were a lot of hunters in the area with their dogs, especially at the other end of the meadow where the ducks and geese were feeding in the corn stubble, so I didn’t venture in. But I sat for a few minutes, just looking and remembering and appreciating the quiet beauty of this place. The meadow was busy with sparrows, and I think I saw a lingering bobolink. A Cooper’s Hawk patrolled the margin between meadow and woods.

By this time next year, the area will be the site of an industrial building and parking lots. Traffic is expected from several neighboring towns.

Is it coincidence that I have seen Golden Eagles here two years in a row, or is there perhaps something special about this area? How about the Grasshopper Sparrows, Bobolinks, Vesper Sparrows, White-crowned Sparrows? American Kestrels, Northern Harrier, Peregrine, American Golden-plover? Rough-legged Hawk, Short-eared Owl? American Pipits? Snow Geese? Northern Pintail, Shoveler?

Nah, it’s just another flat piece of land. Cover it with asphalt.

Friday, October 21, 2011

Field Notes

Many birders keep field notes, recording not only what birds they’ve seen, and when, and where, but also jotting down detailed descriptions of the shape, plumage, flight, feeding habits, and other behaviors, of rare or interesting birds. The notes help them to sort out difficult identifications, track sightings over time, and keep a record of their birding activities.

As I’ve written before, I am a "listless" birder. And that works for me. But occasionally I do make field notes. My notes are probably rather, um, atypical. Here are some "field notes" that I collected over the past few months during trips afield.


Kestrel. Beautiful. Long wings. Slice the air.

White-throated Sparrow. Seed-crusher. Sweet song.

OMG. Peregrine. Flash in the sky, burst of feathers, one less dove.

Heron in the mist, winging over the trees that edge the river. Recalls to me [how?] ancient times. Breathe, breathe, look.

Merganser, shaggy crest, droplets on the beak. Diving ducks, how do they see in the murk? Bob up from a dive, look around, what panache. They know they're cool. Hey.

Listen, far away over the fields, a meadowlark whistles. Dwindling farmland, dwindling habitat, the rare clear whistle. Wish I could see the bird that offers the distant song.

Flickers, golden wings bounding through the air. Calling wicka wicka wicka through the woods. The pair meets on a branch, couples, calls softly, preens.

Blue jays everywhere. So aggressive around the feeders. But see how tenderly this couple feeds each other. Jay, jay, softly they call. Beeble beeble, the rarely heard song. Here is a seed for you.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Sideways Symmetry

When I arrived in Hartford yesterday for a mid-day meeting, the sun was shining brightly, emphasizing the colors and textures of many of the buildings downtown.

I had some time to spare, so I sat in my car, had a snack, and read for a while. But my gaze kept returning to the view down the street from where I was parked:

The longer I looked, the more I liked it.

Are these two buildings designed by the same hand? They complement each other. In fact, they are almost identical, except that one is reversed and turned on its side. See?

I found this delightful.

I love these buildings.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Eine Kleine Bach

In German, "Bach" means "brook."

A little brook - "eine kleine Bach" - runs along the edge of my yard.

Listen to its song:


Unintended Consequences

This joke has been floating around for some time, but it’s still funny. I’ve added several items of my own at the end of the list.


The Mozart Effect
(from, via L.N.)

A recent report now says that the Mozart effect is yet another charming urban legend. The bad news for hip urban professionals: playing Mozart for your designer baby will not improve his IQ or help him get into that exclusive pre-school. He will just have to get admitted to Harvard some other way. Of course, we’re all better off listening to Mozart purely for the pleasure of it. However, one must wonder whether, if playing Mozart sonatas for little Tiffany or Jason really could boost his or her intelligence, what would happen if other composers were played during the kiddies’ developmental time?

Liszt Effect: Child speaks rapidly and extravagantly, but never really says anything important.

Bruckner Effect: Child speaks v-e-r-y slowly and repeats himself frequently and at length. Gains reputation for profundity.

Wagner Effect: Child becomes a egocentric megalomaniac. May eventually marry his sister.

Puccini Effect: Child is prone to murderous fits of jealousy if another child plays with his/her toys. Child also suffers never ending bout of croup and insists it’s nothing.

Verdi Effect: Child marches around his room repeatedly, lines up all of his stuffed animals in a parade, pays particular homage to his stuffed elephants.

Mahler Effect: Child continually screams – at great length and volume– that he’s dying.

Schönberg Effect: Child never repeats a word until he’s used all the other words in his vocabulary. Sometimes talks backwards. Eventually, people stop listening to him. Child blames them for their inability to understand him.

Ives Effect: The child develops a remarkable ability to carry on several separate conversations at once, in various dialects.

Glass Effect: The child tends to repeat himself over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over again[, making almost imperceptible changes to the words as he goes].

Stravinsky Effect: The child is prone to savage, guttural and profane outbursts that often lead to fighting and pandemonium in the preschool.

Brahms Effect: The child is able to speak beautifully as long as his sentences contain a multiple of three words (3, 6, 9, 12, etc). However, his sentences containing 4 or 8 words are strangely uninspired.

Cage Effect: Child says nothing for 4 minutes, 33 seconds—exactly. A recent study has determined that the Cage Effect is preferred by 10 out of 10 classroom teachers.

That list inspired a few of my own:
The Gesualdo Effect: Child begins each sentence on one topic, then shifts unexpectedly to a new, unrelated topic. Grows up to be a serial murderer.

The Scriabin Effect: Child believes he is God and believes that he can bring about Armageddon by talking to the Himalayas. [Not unlike some present-day religious nuts, eh?]

Another Mozart Effect: Child is prone to procrastination, insisting that he can write down his homework from memory in plenty of time before class. (And he can.) Obsessed with scatalogical speech and bodily functions.

The Satie Effect: Child refuses to bathe and cleanses self by rubbing body with pumice. Eats only white foods.

Another Wagner Effect: Child develops persistent narcissistic, hypersensitive, grandiose personality. Insists on pure silk underwear.

The Sussmayr Effect: Child believes that he can gain eternal fame by completing a classmate's homework. Can't understand why no one appreciates him.

The Beethoven Effect: Child is pathologically antisocial, but believes he can save humanity from its own ignorance. Forces art down their throats until they admit they like the taste, then says, "I told you I was right."

The Duruflé Effect: Child suffers from extreme perfectionism; works obsessively to create only perfect work. Has difficulty starting and completing homework due to his fear of making a mistake.

The Sousa Effect: Child is obsessed with toy soldiers, setting them up for one parade after another. Walks, talks, chews, and brushes teeth at precisely 120 beats per minute.

The (Richard) Strauss Effect: Child is obsessed with number of possessions. Often teases other children who have less. ("My orchestra is bigger than yours!")

The Bach Effect: Child grows up perfect and loved by all.

Monday, October 17, 2011

October Afternoon

I took a short walk around my yard this afternoon, reveling in the variety of colors and textures that I found. It's amazing what you can see if you open your mind to unexpected beauties.

Blueberry bushes in their autumn finery:

A tendril of English Ivy, climbing outside my office window:

Sapsucker drillings in the old apple tree in the corner of the yard:

Leaves fallen from the big maple near the street:

Interesting shadows cast by yew seedlings on a big yellow maple leaf:

The last of the geranium blossoms and the thickly-blooming chrysanthemums:

Another view of the walk and the chrysanthemums:

The bark of the oak tree has some beautiful soft colors:

The maple trees are loaded with seeds, as is the black walnut and all the oaks. It's a "mast year" - great for the birds and other animals that depend on this for winter sustenance.

Ivy geranim - thriving in the cooler weather.

I loved how the color and texture of these pine needles contrasted with the variegated, glossy leaves of this small shrub:

Here's the big maple in the front yard, source of the yellow leaves:

Pine needles adorning our lilac bush:

Gorgeous chestnut-colored mushrooms under the pachysandra:

Our little brook:

Carrot-Raisin Muffins


The other night I made some hearty Potato Bacon Corn Chowder ( I thought that these slightly spicy-sweet muffins would complement the bold and salty soup, and yes, they were good together. The chowder was made with fresh potatoes from my sister’s garden. She also gave us plenty of fresh carrots – aren’t they beautiful?

Though these are fairly mature carrots, they are sweet and very tender, and were just wonderful in these Carrot-Raisin Muffins.


Preheat the oven to 400˚F, and place a rack in the center of the oven. Prepare a 12-muffin pan (grease the cups or use muffin papers). (Muffin papers for me – no washing up.)

In a large mixing bowl, combine the dry ingredients:

1 ½ cups all-purpose flour
3/4 cup white sugar
1 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon baking soda
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
½ teaspoon salt
½ teaspoon ground nutmeg
¼ teaspoon ground cloves

In a small bowl, measure:

2 large eggs
¼ cup orange juice
5 tablespoons vegetable oil or melted butter (I used oil this time)

And whisk them together:

Then stir in 1 ½ cups shredded carrots:

Add these wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and stir gently to combine:

Stir in 1 cup raisins:

Divide the batter among the muffin cups:

Bake the muffins 18-20 minutes or more, until the muffins are golden brown and rounded. Test them with a wooden pick; it should come out clean. 

Let the muffins cool in the pan a few minutes before removing them to a rack.

Serve them warm. Offer butter for spreading if you like, but these muffins were so moist that we didn’t feel the need to add anything.

If any muffins are left over, they will keep well for several days in a tightly sealed plastic container. It’s probably best to refrigerate them.

This recipe is my own version of several recipes from various sources.

This last shot shows the muffins cooling while the potato-corn-bacon chowder simmers on the stove:

All my recipes may be viewed here:

They are further organized as follows, with some overlap:

Main Dishes
Soups and Stews

Sunday, October 16, 2011

Potato Cheese Corn Chowder

Though I love to cook, some nights I just don’t feel like cooking at all. On those occasions, I rely on favorite recipes that are easy to make and that we all like, such as Potato Cheese Corn Chowder, my version of a classic country soup.

Thursday, October 13, 2011

Night Visitor

We have had a bear on the deck two or three times in the past several weeks. We’ve seen it only during the daytime, when it has come to rifle the bird feeders. It’s a big black bear, fat and glossy, with a large yellow ear tag. Here’s a photo (cropped and enlarged) from August 20, in which you can just see the tag in the bear’s right ear:

I wrote about that bear's visit and posted a video a few weeks ago:

Late last night ― or rather, early this morning, as it was about 1:30 a.m. ― I was working at my laptop in the kitchen when I heard a noise on the deck. I turned on the outside lights to see an even bigger black bear, without an ear tag, emptying one of the thistle-seed feeders. This was clearly a different animal from the other bear, but like that one, very beautiful. Here’s a poor photo, taken through the kitchen window, in which you can clearly see that the bear is not tagged:

The bear stayed for about 10 minutes - I was able to make two brief videos:

Update, one week later: Here are photos of the damage the bear left behind. The hole in the deck floor was made by the big bear that made a night visit a week or so ago. Stole all the suet! Guess we'll have to stop feeding the birds altogether until hibernation is underway.

Why I Bake Bread


Toast with butter, of course.


Wednesday, October 12, 2011


In my yard today.

Another Loss

Yesterday, near the end of a long drive, I stopped at a shrubby field that has been a reliable autumn and winter location for Northern Harrier, Brown Thrasher, Bobolink, White-crowned Sparrow, American Kestrel, and Merlin. When this field floods during spring and fall, it is a wonderful place to see migrating ducks; I've been thrilled to see Northern Pintail and Northern Shoveler here, two relatively rare ducks and real beauties.

I sat there for a few minutes, enjoying the quiet and the subtle autumn colors in the trees around the field. Flossy milkweed seeds floated like snowflakes from their bursting seed pods, which showed dark brown against the russet grasses. Little birds – probably sparrows and some Palm Warblers – flitted in and out of the weeds, which were loaded with seeds. A skein of geese winged overhead and settled on the little lake that spread out beyond the hedgerow and tree-lined bank. Their sharp two-note calls rang pleasantly over the water, and I heard the rattle of a Belted Kingfisher from behind the little island.

As I looked over the landscape, I reflected on how important this little piece of land – 8 acres or so? – was for wintering birds, and I was glad that it had been preserved. I felt this gratitude especially keenly in light of the recent decision of the town immediately to the south to destroy a field which offers similar habitat and has also been a haven for grassland birds in our area. (I wrote about that loss here.)

When I got home, I flipped through the local newspaper that had just arrived in the mail. It was bad enough to see “P&Z approves special permit for regional fire training facility,” which added more painful detail to the loss of the favorite meadow referred to at the link above.

But there was another headline that caused a stab: “P&Z approves application for sports field expansion.”

That field I described in the first paragraph above?

It will be destroyed to make a soccer field and parking lot.

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

It’s So Depressing

I wrote at length the other day about the impending loss of a choice bit of meadow habitat in my town. I’m still aching over it.

Now it’s October 5, and for the past four days I have had to listen to constant gunfire, from dawn to dusk, coming from the meadow and riverside habitat that’s near my house. It’s hunting season. Ducks and geese and shorebirds, I suppose, though why anyone would shoot a shorebird that might yield two bites of edible meat is beyond me.

The guns go all day long. All day. They do not stop.

Kill, kill, kill, kill.

It’s just so depressing.

My only comfort came on my way home from an errand today…I bypassed the killing fields, of course, choosing to stop instead at a little pond tucked into the woods between my house and the river, right in a residential area where hunting would not be allowed.

There was a good-sized flock of geese and ducks there…hiding, I guess. Hope they have the sense to stay there.

Monday, October 3, 2011

Too late, too late. Wasted. Squandered. Gone.

One of my favorite birding spots is scheduled for destruction. My efforts to stop my town’s decision to allow construction of a multi-town, live fire training facility on a grassland parcel were in vain. I sent a letter and a comprehensive list of birds I’ve seen there to our town planning and zoning committee in lieu of my attending their meeting (I had a schedule conflict). I doubt that they read what I sent, or if they did, I doubt it meant anything to them. I’ve posted most of it below, just for posterity and in an effort to articulate my rage and sorrow.

My heart is broken over this and over every piece of habitat that is needlessly, permanently destroyed. I understand the need for fire training facilities, but I find it impossible that this special area was the only place they could find for its construction. Yes, I’ll miss the peace, quiet, beauty, and natural abundance of this place more than I can say, but I grieve more for the birds and other animals who will no longer have a place to breed, to winter, to stop to rest on their migrations.

Oh, and I haven’t even mentioned the wildflowers, have I? Or the snakes and turtles? Or the butterflies? Or the cleansing properties of all that greenery and water?

Too late, too late. Wasted. Squandered. Gone.


Except for the occasional beneficial mowing, this 11-acre parcel of meadowland tucked into the corner of a large agricultural area has remained undisturbed for several years. As a result, it hosts a rich variety of wildlife, including many birds. I have recorded 155 species of birds in the general area, and 108 species in the parcel that is slated for destruction. Of the 108, about a quarter are rare, threatened, or endangered.

For several years, I have visited this meadow area several times each week, in all seasons of the year, primarily to study the large variety of birds there, but also to enjoy the quiet, clean, undeveloped and unpopulated space that we are so fortunate to have right in the center of our town. I also bird regularly at other spots in and around our region. As a result, I have developed a good sense of the overall populations, movements, habitats, and habits of birds in our area, and I can state with confidence that this parcel is a critical component of the avian habitat of the region, particularly for grassland birds.

Because I visit this area frequently in every season, and because I sometimes spend two or three hours on each visit simply observing the birds that breed, migrate, and feed in the area, I have learned much about which birds use the meadow area, and how they use it. I can state with confidence that construction or disturbance in the area could cause permanent damage to the status in our town of several threatened bird species, particularly Bobolink, Northern Harrier, and American Kestrel.

To the casual eye, the parcel of land seems like waste land, with brush and “weeds” and, in recent weeks, the muddy remains of Tropical Storm Irene. But that little corner is rich with birds, and with other animals, too. I’ve seen coyote, fox, and deer there, of course, and the high numbers of hawks and falcons attest to the healthy population of smaller vertebrates which make up their prey. Two days after Tropical Storm Irene hit in August, I watched about 1000 Chimney Swifts and about 500 Tree Swallows – the largest such flock I had ever seen – feeding on flying insects directly above this parcel. It was an astounding sight, made possible by the fact that the land there has been undisturbed and is rich in invertebrates, such as the flying insects on which these birds feed exclusively. 

During all times of year, birds move about this area constantly in search of food, traveling from the nearby river to the meadow, and from field to field within the meadowlands, depending on the abundance of food. Many ducks and waterfowl, including herons, sandpipers, and the like, will forage and rest in the meadowlands, where they find most of their food, especially during and after the floods which frequently enrich these low-lying lands.

Many hawks, owls and other predators depend on open grassland for food, and I’ve seen many of them here, including all three of the falcons that may be seen in our area (Peregrine, Merlin, Kestrel), Red-tailed and Red-shouldered Hawks, Coopers and Sharp-shinned Hawks, Bald Eagle, and the grassland specialist, the Northern Harrier. Last October, I was stunned to see a Golden Eagle hunting over this parcel; it had stopped here to rest and feed on its long migration from the north.

An abundance of finches, including many northern sparrow species which do not breed in Connecticut, may be seen in the meadow areas during the winter. During the winter of 2010-2011, I observed several northern rarities in the Round Hill portion of the Meadow, including Short-eared Owl, Rough-legged Hawk, White-crowned Sparrow, Pine Siskin, and Lincoln’s Sparrow. These birds are rare enough that when I report these sightings to the Connecticut Ornithological Association, they disseminate them to the rest of the state on their daily report.

As you may see from the list appended below:

• I have recorded sightings of 155 species of birds in this town meadowlands. Many of these birds are considered uncommon, rare, or endangered. All but a few introduced species are protected under federal law.
• I have seen 108 species of birds in the area that will now be destroyed in order that a fire training facility may be built.
• Of the 108 bird species that I have observed in the area which is going to be destroyed, 25 are considered uncommon, rare, or endangered. Several of these depend on undisturbed grassland for survival.

It’s easy to destroy habitat, but it’s impossible to replace it once it’s gone. Grassland habitats are disappearing at an alarming rate all over the country, causing steep declines in avian and other species that rely on grassland for breeding and migration.

Our open space is precious. Our quiet areas are few. We have a choice about how to care for this lovely land that lies within our stewardship and that provides a quiet, clean, nature-rich oasis in our busy town center. I begged the commission: "Please choose to preserve this open space and to leave it undisturbed and untrammeled." They chose development.

I invited them to read my observations on birds in these meadow areas:

The variety of sparrow species in the meadow, in and around the parcel that was lost:

Pipits, rare visitors from the tundra, stop in the meadow, adjacent to the parcel that was lost:

The bounty of birds in the meadow in the center of town, the parcel that was lost:

Migration of Northern Harrier from the meadow, the parcel that was lost:

Hunting habits of Northern Harrier in the meadows:

Too late, too late. Gone, gone. Gone.


Birds seen in my favorite “patch”— which will cease to exist when the bulldozers arrive.

An asterisk * denotes an uncommon, rare, or threatened bird.

1. *Greater White-fronted Goose
2. *Snow Goose
3. *Cackling Goose
4. Canada Goose
5. Wood Duck
6. Gadwall
7. American Wigeon
8. American Black Duck
9. Mallard
10. *Blue-winged Teal
11. *Northern Shoveler
12. *Northern Pintail
13. Green-winged Teal
14. *Harlequin Duck [almost unheard of inland in winter; my report of this bird here in January 2010 attracted birders from several states to town]
15. Hooded Merganser
16. Common Merganser
17. *Red-breasted Merganser
18. Ring-necked Pheasant
19. Wild Turkey
20. Double-crested Cormorant
21. Great Blue Heron
22. Great Egret
23. Green Heron
24. Black-crowned Night-heron
25. *Black Vulture
26. Turkey Vulture
27. Osprey
28. *Bald Eagle
29. *Northern Harrier
30. Sharp-shinned Hawk
31. Cooper’s Hawk
32. *Northern Goshawk
33. Red-shouldered Hawk
34. Broad-winged Hawk
35. Red-tailed Hawk
36. *Rough-legged Hawk
37. *Golden Eagle
38. *American Kestrel
39. Merlin
40. *Peregrine Falcon
41. Black-bellied Plover
42. *American Golden-plover
43. Semipalmated Plover
44. Killdeer
45. Spotted Sandpiper
46. Solitary Sandpiper
47. Greater Yellowlegs
48. Lesser Yellowlegs
49. Semipalmated Sandpiper
50. Least Sandpiper
51. *Baird’s Sandpiper
52. *Pectoral Sandpiper
53. *Buff-breasted Sandpiper
54. Wilson’s Snipe
55. American Woodcock
56. Ring-billed Gull
57. Herring Gull
58. Great Black-backed Gull
59. Rock Pigeon
60. Mourning Dove
61. *Short-eared Owl
62. Common Nighthawk
63. Chimney Swift
64. Ruby-throated Hummingbird
65. Belted Kingfisher
66. Red-bellied Woodpecker
67. *Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
68. Downy Woodpecker
69. Hairy Woodpecker
70. Northern Flicker
71. Pileated Woodpecker
72. Eastern Wood-Pewee
73. Willow Flycatcher
74. Least Flycatcher
75. Eastern Phoebe
76. Great Crested Flycatcher
77. Eastern Kingbird
78. Blue-headed Vireo
79. Warbling Vireo
80. Red-eyed Vireo
81. Blue Jay
82. American Crow
83. Fish Crow
84. *Common Raven
85. Tree Swallow
86. N. Rough-winged Swallow
87. Bank Swallow
88. *Cliff Swallow
89. Barn Swallow
90. Black-capped Chickadee
91. Tufted titmouse
92. *Red-breasted Nuthatch
93. White-breasted Nuthatch
94. *Brown Creeper
95. Carolina Wren
96. House Wren
97. Golden-crowned Kinglet
98. Ruby-crowned Kinglet
99. Blue-gray Gnatcatcher
100. Eastern Bluebird
101. Veery
102. Wood Thrush
103. American Robin
104. Gray Catbird
105. Northern Mockingbird
106. *Brown Thrasher
107. European Starling
108. American Pipit
109. Cedar Waxwing
110. Blue-winged Warbler
111. Northern Parula
112. Yellow Warbler
113. Chestnut-sided Warbler
114. Magnolia Warbler
115. Black-throated Blue Warbler
116. Yellow-rumped Warbler
117. Pine Warbler
118. Palm Warbler
119. Blackpoll Warbler
120. Black-and-white Warbler
121. American Redstart
122. Ovenbird
123. Common Yellowthroat
124. Scarlet Tanager
125. Eastern Towhee
126. American Tree Sparrow
127. Chipping Sparrow
128. Field Sparrow
129. *Vesper Sparrow
130. Savannah Sparrow
131. *Grasshopper Sparrow
132. *Fox Sparrow
133. Song Sparrow
134. *Lincoln’s Sparrow
135. Swamp Sparrow
136. White-throated Sparrow
137. *White-crowned Sparrow
138. Dark-Eyed Junco
139. Northern Cardinal
140. Rose-breasted Grosbeak
141. Indigo Bunting
142. *Dickcissel
143. *Bobolink
144. Red-winged Blackbird
145. *Eastern Meadowlark
146. *Rusty Blackbird
147. Common Grackle
148. Brown-headed Cowbird
149. *Orchard Oriole
150. Baltimore Oriole
151. *Purple Finch
152. House Finch
153. *Pine Siskin
154. American Goldfinch
155. House Sparrow